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Showing posts with label nanobots. Show all posts
Showing posts with label nanobots. Show all posts

April 08, 2014

Summarizing DNA nanotechnology, Synthetic Biology are on the path to realizing visions of nanomedicine and Nanoscale Metamaterial to visible spectrum control

DNA nanotechnology, synthetic biology and nanoscale metamaterials are on the path to realizing visions of nanomedicine and visible spectrum control.

DNA nanorobotics and synthetic biology are the first two items. One thing to remember is that work that is published in research papers was done in the lab 1-2 years ago. The current work by the
researchers is ahead of what they published. The third item is metamaterial related. The actual application of stationary cloaking in the visible spectrum is less interesting that the large scale
production of nanoscale feature size metamaterials which can be adapted to engineer physical properties. One point of interest in the second item beyond determining how to reinforce DNA structures was the DNA paint capability to enhance observation at the nanoscale.

DNA nanorobots are demoed in live cockroaches and could be in humans by 2019 and could scale to Commodore 64 - eight bit computing power

1. Researchers have injected various kinds of DNA nanobots into cockroaches. Because the nanobots are labelled with fluorescent markers, the researchers can follow them and analyse how different robot combinations affect where substances are delivered. The team says the accuracy of delivery and control of the nanobots is equivalent to a computer system.

This is the development of the vision of nanomedicine.
This is the realization of the power of DNA nanotechnology.
This is programmable dna nanotechnology.


March 25, 2014

Shawn Douglas Google Solve for X targeted cancer therapeutics with DNA origami nanobots

Recently we had covered the Google Solve for X talk on DNA nanobot microsurgery by Ido Bachelet.

Here is the 2013 Google Solve for X talk by Shawn Douglas who led the work on the 2012 paper that was co-written by Ido Bachelet and George Church.

Shawn Douglas has his personal website here

Problem: Cancer

Solution: Nanorobots that deliver cancer drugs specifically to tumors, allowing patients to be treated by several drugs at once.

Technology: Building on the field of DNA origami, Shawn Douglas has developed a method to design and fabricate nanometer scale robots. The robots are fabricated out of DNA and have the ability to delivery cancer drugs to a specific cancer cells.





September 10, 2008

DNA origami based nanomachine for future microsurgery and neuro-imaging sensors and direct cellular interaction


Shrink-wrapped nanomachines
Making a device that operates at a scale 1000 times smaller than a human hair requires many molecular parts. A combination of DNA, silver, gold and fat molecules called liposomes are just some of the parts that will power and control a nanodevice designed to work like a remote controlled pacemaker to deliver an electrical impulse to a single cell.

A research team led by Fulton School electrical engineering professor Rudy Diaz, Biodesign Institute researcher Hao Yan (l-r) and Thomas Moore will assemble tiny nanomachines that could ultimately be used to detect and treat neurological disorders. Another funded project is John Chaput will lead a Biodesign Institute team on a project that plans to search the human genome for regions of DNA that contain important, but as of yet unidentified genetic information. If successful, Chaput’s project may confirm the possible existence of novel protein-coding regions that remain hidden in the shadows of the classic proteome. Determining how and when such proteins are made could have a major impact in diseases, such as cancer, by helping us to understand how cellular function is deposited in our genomes.

The Diaz work will be building light activated DNA devices for stimulating neurons. Hardcore Singularity related nanotechnology.

National Institute of Health has the EUREKA program. EURKA is an acronym for Exceptional, Unconventional Research Enabling Knowledge Acceleration, is intended to boost exceptionally innovative research.

Diaz’s team proposes would permit “direct interaction with cells at the local level.” That would be achieved with a nanoscale structure that could be injected into the body, targeted to attach itself to certain clusters of cells and then controlled by chemical reactions triggered by light delivered either through the skin or via microscopic optical fibers.

The team will molecularly assemble a nanodevice that is best described as a remotely powered and remotely controlled pacemaker.

It will be built on a DNA chassis that includes antennas for receiving power and commands from the outside world, and batteries to store and deliver that power.
The antennas are built of Noble metal nanospheres that take advantage of the plasmon resonance to amplify and focus light with nanometer precision.

Artificial electrocytes – electric organ cells that work like batteries, such as those that naturally occur in fish such as electric eels – will be constructed from liposomes (fat cells) that will have ion pumps and ion gate molecules incorporated into their lipid membranes.

The whole structure will have to be encapsulated in a DNA “cage” to prevent the components from being short-circuited by the body’s fluids.

Under the correct wavelength of light, the power-receiving antennae would amplify the incident light to drive the electric charging of the artificial electrocyte.
The structure would include a set of plasmonic antennae. These are microscopic metal nanostructures that behave as antennae in the presence of photons (light) the way metal antennas behave in the presence of radio waves.

The antennas would be tuned to a different wavelength and coupled to the ion gates in the membranes to serve as light-activated switches to perform a “gate-opening” process that triggers the discharge of the artificial electrocyte chain, thus delivering an electrical impulse that can stimulate neurons.

These nanostructures could lead to advanced neuro-imaging sensors operating at the cellular scale. Such nanosensors delivered to their targets by chemical tags, or during surgical intervention, could reveal new details about the transmission of neural signals and of their pathological interruption.

The light-powered artificial electrocyte could become a critical tool for improving microsurgery, and advancing the understanding of cellular biology.


Delivering the package
The device Diaz’s team proposes would permit “direct interaction with cells at the local level.” Once assembled, the nanoscale machine would be injected into the body, targeted to attach cells like neurons, and deliver an electrical impulse to stimulate a damaged region from diseases such as multiple sclerosis.s

April 28, 2008

Realtime integrated MEMS, scanning electron microscope nanoprobe assembly system by September 2008

Design of an on-chip microscale nanoassembly system has been published by Jason Gorman of the Intelligent Systems Division at the US government's National Institute of Standards and Technology. They are currently fabricating a somewhat revised micro-scale nanoassembly system that we believe will be capable of manipulating nanoparticles by the end of the summer, 2008.

Where the paper should appear soon online

The NIST system consists of four Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) devices positioned around a centrally located port on a chip into which the starting materials can be placed Each nanomanipulator is composed of positioning mechanism with an attached nanoprobe. By simultaneously controlling the position of each of these nanoprobes, the team can use them to cooperatively assemble a complex structure on a very small scale. "If successful, this project will result in an on-chip nanomanufacturing system that would be the first of its kind," says Gorman.

Our micro-scale nanoassembly system is designed for real-time imaging of the nanomanipulation procedures using a scanning electron microscope," explains Gorman, "and multiple nanoprobes can be used to grasp nanostructures in a cooperative manner to enable complex assembly operations." Importantly, once the team has optimized their design they anticipate that nanoassembly systems could be made for around $400 per chip at present costs.

FURTHER READING
Their paper was in the International Journal of Nanomanufacturing

an abstract to a Jason Gorman presentation

The previous issue of the International Journal of nanomanufacturing

A 2007 ieee paper by Jason Gorman. Multi-Probe Micro-Assembly by Wason, J. Gressick, W. Wen, J.T. Gorman, J. Dagalakis, N.


This paper describes the algorithm development and experimental results of a multi-probe micro-assembly system. The experimental testbed consists of two actuated probes, an actuated die stage, and vision feedback. The kinematics relationships for the probes, die stage, and part manipulation are derived and used for calibration and kinematics-based planning and control. Particular attention has been focused on the effect of adhesion forces in probe-part and part-stage contacts in order to achieve grasp stability and robust part manipulation. By combining pre-planned manipulation sequences and vision based manipulation, repeatable spatial (in contrast to planar) manipulation and insertion of a sub-millimeter part has been demonstrated. The insertion process only requires the operator to identify two features to initialize the calibration, and the remaining tasks involving part pick-up, manipulation, and insertion are all performed autonomously.

March 21, 2008

Quantum dot–based memory structures potentially one thousand times faster than current memory

The concept of a memory device based on self-organized quantum dots (QDs) is presented, enabling extremely fast write times, limited only by the charge carrier relaxation time being in the picosecond range. (from Applied Physical letters) [potentially one thousand times faster than current computer memory] For a first device structure with embedded InAs/GaAs QDs, a write time of 6 ns is demonstrated. A similar structure containing GaSb/GaAs QDs shows a write time of 14 ns.

Other interesting news from Applied Physical Letters:
Re-examination of Casimir limit for phonon traveling in semiconductor nanostructures.

The effective mean free path MFP of nanofilms is found to be larger than that of nanowires, where the Casimir limit for nanofilms equals twice its thickness, or two times of the limit for nanowires. The theoretical formula agrees approximately with available experimental and computer simulation results for heat conduction along semiconducting nanowires, nanofilms, and superlattices.


Nanomechanical device powered by the lateral Casimir force

The coupling between corrugated surfaces due to the lateral Casimir force is employed to propose a nanoscale mechanical device composed of two racks and a pinion. The noncontact nature of the interaction allows for the system to be made frustrated by choosing the two racks to move in the same direction and forcing the pinion to choose between two opposite directions. This leads to a rich and sensitive phase behavior, which makes the device potentially useful as a mechanical sensor or amplifier. The device could also be used to make a mechanical clock signal of tunable frequency.


Excimer-based red/near-infrared organic light-emitting diodes with very high quantum efficiency

Various light output measures of red/near-infrared (NIR) excimer-based organic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are reported for different cathodes (Al, Al/LiF, Ca, and Ca/PbO2). By using a selected phosphor (PtL2Cl) from a series of terdentate cyclometallated efficient phosphorescent Pt(II) complexes, PtLnCl, as the neat film emitting layer and a Ca/Pb(IV)O2 cathode, the authors achieve unusually high forward viewing external quantum efficiencies of up to 14.5% photons/electron and a power conversion efficiency of up to 6% at a high emission forward output of 25 mW/cm2. These are the highest efficiencies reported for a NIR organic LED.


March 15, 2007

Microbot propulsion

Finding a propulsion mechanism that works on the microscopic scale is one of the key challenges for developing microrobots. Another is to find a way to supply such a device with energy because there is so little room to carry on-board fuel or batteries.

Now a team lead by Orlin Velev at North Carolina State University in Raleigh, US, has found that a simple electronic diode could overcome both these problems. Velev and Vesselin Paunov from the University of Hull, UK, floated a diode in a tank of salt water and zapping the set-up with an alternating electric field. They reached speeds of several millimetres per second using electro-osmosis.

But there are still significant challenges ahead. Velev's diodes are millimetre-sized but any robot designed to work within the human body would have to be an order of magnitude smaller. In the past, attempts to shrink propulsive mechanisms have run up against a fundamental barrier in fluid dynamics: fluids become progressively more viscous on smaller scales. "It's like moving through honey" says Velev.

But extrapolations of the team's measurements indicate the propulsive force will work just as well at smaller scales. "The propulsive force scales in exactly the same way as the drag. That's quite significant," says McKinley.

Another challenge is that electro-osmosis occurs only at higher pH levels, when the ionic content of the water is high. Changing the pH from acidic to alkaline reverses the direction of thrust and there is zero thrust when the pH is about 6. Blood is only weakly alkaline so Velev will have to make adjustments to generate significant propulsive forces inside the body. He thinks the problem might be overcome by covering the diode with a polymer that shifts the pH at which zero thrust occurs.


Other types of micropropulsion have all run up against significant barriers. One idea exploits the phenomenon in which an electric current in a magnetic field experiences a force. The idea is to bathe a robot in a magnetic field and then switch on a current to generate a force. "The trouble is you need to power the current which requires an onboard battery. How do you do that?" asks McKinley.

Ultrasound can create pressure gradients within liquids that can move particles around. The problem here is that ultrasound can be hard to focus and can also cause bubbles to form and collapse, a process called cavitation that can damage cells.

Yet another option is to carry an onboard supply of hydrogen peroxide which dissociates into steam and oxygen. Expelling these gases generates a force - the attitude thrusters on the space shuttle work in the same way. But the fuel supply uses up the space available for sensors.

Richard Jones and his co-authors announced at Softmachines a platinum catalyzed version of the hydrogen peroxide propulsion of microbots They are using a directed random walk where the propulsion interacts with Brownian motion. the abstract for their paper is here