The paper, titled "Fusion reactions from over 150 keV ions in a dense plasma focus [DPF] plasmoid," also lays to rest a long-standing scientific controversy with major implications for whether the DPF is a viable source of useful fusion energy. If fusion reactions in a DPF come primarily from an unconfined beam, then the fusion yields are unlikely to scale to useful quantities of energy. On the other hand, if the fusion reactions take place primarily between ions confined within a concentrated ball of plasma (a "plasmoid"), the DPF (and LPP's technology suite) are much more promising as a clean energy source--In fact, such results would prove the DPF is the most promising and near-term of any fusion approach.
The results detailed in the paper show conclusively that the majority of fusion reactions in a DPF using LPP's patented design come from the plasmoid, not a beam. Furthermore, the high temperatures achieved are hot enough to ignite the ultimate clean fusion fuel, a mixture of the common elements hydrogen and boron that produces only a tiny quantity of harmless helium as waste.
Led by lead scientist Eric Lerner with co-authors S. Krupakar Murali, Derek Shannon, Aaron Blake, and Fred van Roessel, the team measured the flux and energies of neutrons produced by deuterium fusion reactions within the Focus Fusion-1 dense plasma focus. These measurements showed neutrons coming out of the machine evenly enough that a concentrated plasmoid source had to be responsible, since a beam would create many more neutrons along its direction of travel.
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