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June 22, 2011

Bose–Einstein Condensate Theory of Deuteron Fusion in Metal

Journal Condensed Matter Nuclear - Bose–Einstein Condensate Theory of Deuteron Fusion in Metal by Yeong E Kim of Purdue University (14 pages, 2010

Theory of Bose–Einstein condensation nuclear fusion (BECNF) has been developed to explain many diverse experimental results of deuteron induced nuclear reactions in metals, observed in electrolysis and gas loading experiments. The theory is based on a single conventional physical concept of Bose–Einstein condensation of deuterons in metal and provides a consistent theoretical description of the experimental results. The theory is capable of explaining most of the diverse experimental observations, and also has predictive powers as expected for a quantitatively predictive physical theory. It is shown that the fusion energy transfer to metal can be accomplished by the stopping power of metal without invoking hypothesis of fusion energy transfer to metal lattice vibrations. It is also shown that observed anomalous tritium production can be explained by a sub-threshold resonance reaction mechanism. The basic concept and important features of the BECNF theory is presented, and theoretical explanations of the experimental observations are described. Key experimental tests of theoretical predictions are proposed and discussed.


* experiments at these low (20-77 K) temperatures could provide tests for enhancement of the reaction rate


The recent report of deuteron gas-loading experiment by Arata and Zhang show positive results of observing excess heat and 4He production using '5 nm Pd particles imbedded in ZrO2 and purified deuterium. The recent experimental results by Kitamura et al. using '10 nm Pd particles have confirmed the results of Arata and Zhang, and also is consistent with one of theoretical predictions of the BECNF theory.

There are other potential applications of the BEC of deuterons to other related phenomena listed in the following:
(i) transient acoustic cavitation fusion
(ii) transmutation , and
(iii) high-temperature superconductivity in deuterated metals and alloys.

These applications will be described in future publications. For proton–metal
transmutations, we may have to reformulate the BECNF theory based on BEC of molecular Bosons (H2’s) or Bosons formed by pairing of two protons in metals

Based on a single physical concept of Bose–Einstein condensation of deuterons in metal, theory of Bose–Einstein condensation nuclear fusion (BECNF) is developed to explain deuteron-induced nuclear reactions observed in metal. It is shown that the BECNF theory is capable of explaining qualitatively or quantitatively all of ten experimental observations reported from electrolysis and gas-loading experiments.

Theory of Bose–Einstein condensation mechanism for deuteron-induced nuclear reactions in micro/nano-scale metal grains and particles (9 pages, 2009)

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