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December 25, 2010

Carnival of Space 181

The Carnival of Space 181 is up at Weird warp

This site provided an article on robotic air taxis and small pocket airports.

Weird Sciences looks at possible paths to negative energy

The research paper Experimental Concepts for Generating Negative Energy in the Laboratory y E. W. Devis and H. E. Puthoff is here



Davis and Puthoff described various experiment to generate and detect negative energy in lab. Some of them are as:

1. Squeezed Quantum States: Substantial theoretical and experimental work has shown that in many quantum systems the limits to measurement precision imposed by the quantum vacuum zero-point fluctuations (ZPF) can be breached by decreasing the noise in one observable (or measurable quantity) at the expense of increasing the noise in the conjugate observable; at the same time the variations in the first observable, say the energy, are reduced below the ZPF such that the energy becomes “negative.” “Squeezing” is thus the control of quantum fluctuations and corresponding uncertainties,whereby one can squeeze the variance of one (physically important) observable quantity provided the variance in the(physically unimportant) conjugate variable is stretched/increased. The squeezed quantity possesses an unusually low variance, meaning less variance than would be expected on the basis of the equipartition theorem. One can in principle exploit quantum squeezing to extract energy from one place in the ordinary vacuum at the expense of accumulating excess energy elsewhere.

2. Gravitationally Squeezed Electromagnetic ZPF: A natural source of negative energy comes from the effect that gravitational fields (of astronomical bodies) in space have upon the surrounding vacuum. For example, the gravitational field of the Earth produces a zone of negative energy around it by dragging some of the virtual particle pairs (a.k.a. vacuum ZPF) downward. One can utilize the negative vacuum energy densities, which arise from distortion of the electromagnetic zero point fluctuations due to the interaction with a prescribed gravitational background, for providing a violation of the energy conditions. The squeezed quantum states of quantum optics provide a natural form of matter having negative energy density. The analysis, via quantum optics, shows that gravitation itself provides the mechanism for generating the squeezed vacuum states needed to support stable traversible wormholes. The production of negative energy densities via a squeezed vacuum is a necessary and unavoidable consequence of the interaction or coupling between ordinary matter and gravity, and this defines what is meant by gravitationally squeezed vacuum states.

3. A Moving Mirror: Negative energy can be created by a single moving reflecting surface (a moving mirror). A mirror moving with increasing acceleration generates a flux of negative energy that emanates from its surface and flows out into the space ahead of the mirror. However, this effect is known to be exceedingly small, and it is not the most effective way to generate negative energy for our purposes.

4.Radial Electric/Magnetic Fields: It is beyond the scope to include all the technical configurations by which one can generate radial electric or magnetic fields. Suffice it to say that ultrahigh-intensity table top lasers have been used to generate extreme electric and magnetic field strengths in the lab. Ultrahigh-intensity lasers use the chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) technique to boost the total output beam power. All laser systems simply repackage energy as a coherent package of optical power, but CPA lasers repackage the laser pulse itself during the amplification process. In typical high-power short-pulse laser systems, it is the peak intensity, not the energy or the fluence, which causes pulse distortion or laser damage. However, the CPA laser dissects a laser pulse according to its frequency components, and reorders it into a time-stretched lower-peak-intensity pulse of the same energy. This benign pulse can then be amplified safely to high energy, and then only afterwards reconstituted as a very short pulse of enormous peak power – a pulse which could never itself have passed safely through the laser system (see Figure 2). Made more tractable in this way, the pulse can be amplified to substantial energies (with orders of magnitude greater peak power) without encountering intensity related problems.

5. Negative Energy from Squeezed Light: Negative energy can be generated by an array of ultrahigh intensity (femtosecond) lasers using an ultrafast rotating mirror system. In this scheme a laser beam is passed through an optical cavity resonator made of lithium niobate (LiNbO3) crystal that is shaped like a cylinder with rounded silvered ends to reflect light. The resonator will act to produce a secondary lower frequency light beam in which the pattern of photons is rearranged into pairs. This is the quantum optical squeezing of light effect that we described previously.Therefore, the squeezed light beam emerging from the resonator will contain pulses of negative energy interspersed with pulses of positive energy in accordance with the quantum squeezing model.

We reviewed the general relativistic definition of negative energy and identified the forms of negative energy that are known to occur in nature or have been predicted to occur. We examined each of these and characterized their physics and the magnitude of negative energy they are capable of producing. Next we reviewed first-order experimental concepts that we believe will achieve the objective of generating negative energy in the lab. It was demonstrated that radial electric or magnetic fields generated byultrahigh-intensity lasers are capable of achieving energy densities large enough to observe laboratory-scale spacetime effects. It was also shown that the negative energy densities generated by squeezed quantum state processes are capable of generating negative energy. However, future work is needed to establish the experimental parameters required to specifically separate out the negative energy pulses from the positive energy pulses in optical cavity systems at ultrahigh speed. The astronomical observation of naturally occurring negative energy lensing eventshas been predicted. The predicted lensing effects have been characterized and quantified but this also needs to be done for laboratory-scale experiments, and this will be the subject of future work. Last, the Quantum Inequalities conjecture is predicted to impose serious constraints on the amount of negative energy that can be generated and utilized. However, this has been disproved to some extent for a variety of spacetimes and quantum field cases. There is also experimental evidence that contradicts the main postulates and assumptions of theQI conjecture.

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