My thinking is that there are three main paths on bone strengthening with different times to get them done. [Link references will be added later, check the labels for references]
Plus the years for FDA approvals (but probably faster for any non-FDA military program or in places like China or North Korea)
1. Replicate the biological action of the genes that strengthen bones. Make pills etc or other treatment that activates the proteins or pathways that cause the denser bones. Requires cracking the code of what is going on.
2. Gene engineer stem cells that they take from you and replace some bone marrow or inject it in so that those end up acting to strengthen bones
3. replace pre hardened bones via surgery. IF we get regeneration and tissue replacement going a lot better first then it could be easier to do replacements that way. Maybe some kind of microsurgery process with MEMS/NEMS or MNT
Same deal for muscles and other tissue.
Brain - a bunch of work on detail mapping and analysis of the brain. Figuring out what to do to improve is rapidly progressing. The better brain simulation might also let you trial run changes to see what would happen before you actually did it in brains. Ideally would want personalized scans and simulations
20 years seems like a reasonable timetable for these things to be a significant niche.
Earlier if you are willing to take risks. A Mengala or for "weapon X" style military program.
Or for people who through disease or age need to get the boost or be impaired. ie Clinical trial 3-10 years
If we were to run the full gamut of enhancements that could be done Among the most important for individuals
- immune system boosting ( possible way to cure cancer, reduce cardiavascular problems)
- enhance longevity
- brain enhancement (how much and how soon depends on how far from optimal we really are now.
Is everyone losing 20-150IQ points because of rampant defects. some kind of thing that with analysis we can see. WOW this problem is endemic. Like air pollution is probably costing 20 IQ points and imperfect nutrition is probably costing another 20-30IQ points. How easy is that damage to fix after living that way for 20-50 years ?
Brain/productivity enhancement would be the most impact on the overall betterment of humanity and civilization
ie Eat right and exercise and everyone could be 2-4 times stronger and healthier. Why wouldn't the same thing apply to brain function ? And if we can make the corrections in pills and other adjustments then maybe it is easy to get people to what is now 200-400 IQ. The other thing is the whole IQ score thing is imperfect.
Super -Virtual reality training and wearable computer cognitive aids could make everyone test out great.
The measure that I think is more important is expertise and productivity rather than IQ. Let everyone start getting the results/achievements of an Edison or Henry Ford or DaVinci or Dean Kamen. Who cares about paper tests/SATs ?
A lot of the rest are nice but you could always wear a good exoskeleton (just like you have glasses instead of Lasik, or drive a car/segway instead of training like an Olympian)
- myostatin inhibitors strength
- bone strengthening
- re-activate (toad/lizard) regeneration in humans
- radiation resistance enhancement (in case of dirty bombs or nukes, carbon nanotube drugs help a lot)
- transgenic gene therapy (muscle like an ape or cheetah)
- metal particle in ligaments for more toughness there