Drugs are in the pipeline that induce significant regeneration of heart muscle over 40-60 days
At Rice University, they have achieved success growing knee cartilidge outside the body that could then be surgically implanted. Clinical trials for bladders grown outside of the body from a patients own cells could begin later this year.
This site tracks many of the projects for artificial replace organs and tissues
Again one of the leading avenues for regeneration are the MRL mice which can regenerate limbs and heart tissue If this were possible for humans then one might regenerate a leg in a few months.
For immediate treatment of injured there are several fast clotting agents that are proving effective Emergency medicine is also being helped by advances in artificial blood such as Polyheme
The superiority of todays medicine and its improvement over time can be seen by US casualties in different wars In world war II, there were 2.3 combat wounded :1 combat dead. For the Vietnam war it was 3.28:1. In the current Iraq war, it is about 9.5 to 1 (WIA returned + WIA not returned) /KIA). Better battlefield medicine and armor that protects vital organs combine to reduce the death rate.
The possibility is that in 10-15 years, medical advances would allow recovery within a couple months to one year from any injury that did not kill you outright.