April 29, 2016

F35 using open air ranges and simulation to prepare to fight layered integrated air defenses and missiles like Russia's S500

The Air Force F-35 is using “open air” ranges and computer simulation to practice combat missions against the best Chinese and Russian-made air-defense technologies – as a way to prepare to enemy threats anticipated in the mid-2020s and beyond.

Surface threats from air defenses is a tough problem because emerging threats right now can see aircraft hundreds of miles away. Today digital SAMS (surface-to-air-missile-systems) can change frequencies and they are very agile in how they operate.

Emerging and future Integrated Air Defense Systems use faster computer processors, are better networked to one-another and detect on a wider range of frequencies. These attributes, coupled with an ability to detect aircraft at further distances, make air defenses increasingly able to at times detect even stealth aircraft, in some instances, with surveillance radar.

The Russian S-500 Prometey is expected to become operational in 2017. It will likely form the upper tier of Russia’s layered integrated air defense system.

The S-500 is expected to able to detect and simultaneously attack up to ten ballistic missile warheads flying at speeds of twenty-three thousand feet per second. It is also reportedly being designed to use hit-to-kill interceptors—a design with similarities to Lockheed Martin's Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD).

Like all modern Russian air defense systems, the S-500 is expected to be highly mobile and will use a network of radars for targeting over vast distances. The missile system is expected to use the 91N6A(M) battle management radar, a modified 96L6-TsP acquisition radar, as well as the new 76T6 multimode engagement and 77T6 ABM engagement radars

Paramount Pictures has no honor and no right to copyright the Klingon language

The Language Creation Society submited a legal brief to defend the Axanar movie production against Paramount Pictures and CBS Paramount and CBS claim they have a copyright on the Klingon language as well as the look of many things used in the Star Trek TV show and movies.

English translation: “we succeed together in a greater whole.”
Latin transliteration: “wa' Dol nIvDaq matay'DI' maQap

Various organizations such as the Klingon Language Institute, as well as individual linguistic scholars, have studied and used the Klingon language for years.

Linguistics professor Marc Okrand initially created the Klingon language. Paramount hired him to create dialogue for Klingon characters in the film Star Trek III: The Search for Spock (1984).

The version of Klingon he created for the film was not a functioning language, however, and Okrand had to add more grammatical features and vocabulary before publishing the first Klingon dictionary in 1985. More than 250,000 copies of the dictionary sold.

The nonprofit Klingon Language Institute (“KLI”) was formed in 1992 for the purpose of studying, promoting, and spreading the Klingon language.

The search engine Bing allows users to translate text to and from Klingon.

Copyright law protects the means of expressing ideas or concepts, but it does not give the copyright holder the right to exclude others from making use of the ideas or concepts themselves. Neither is one permitted to register copyright in a word.

Here is the whole brief

English translation: “brute strength is not the most important asset in a fight.” Latin transliteration: “Suvlu'taHvIS yapbe' HoS neH.”

The main issue of the lawsuit is that technology is enabling efficient content creators to make top quality feature movies for a million dollars or less

Good writing and $1 million can make a better movie than bad writing and $200 million. Special effect costs are not a barrier

NASA and Spacex may land unmanned Red Dragon capsule on Mars in 2018

SpaceX and NASA plan to create the Red Dragon capsule and land it on Mars to collect scientific data — possibly within the next two years in 2018. The plan is to use an unmanned Dragon capsule.

Red Dragon missions will help inform the overall Mars architecture that will be unveiled later this year.
These missions will help demonstrate the technologies needed to land large payloads propulsively on Mars.

A Falcon Heavy will by used to launch it.

The Dragon craft is meant to carry astronauts, but SpaceX founder Elon Musk says the SUV-sized interior of the craft would make it difficult for humans to endure any trips longer than from the Earth to the moon.

Still, NASA Deputy Administrator Dava Newman says that her agency is closer "to sending American astronauts to Mars than anyone, anywhere, at any time has ever been."

In a statement about the collaboration with SpaceX, Newman says a new and broad consensus is emerging that calls for sending astronauts to Mars in the 2030s.

April 28, 2016

China continues building the Pan Asian High speed railway network

By the early 2020s, rail commuters in Asia will be able to travel by rail between Kunming, a major transportation hub in southwestern China, and the tiny city state of Singapore in just 10 hours.

Construction has begun on several parts of the "Pan-Asia Railway Network," a mega plan that will see three 4,500-5,500 kilometer (2,800-3,400 mile) railway lines link China with mainland Southeast Asia, carrying passengers and freight services.

(H/T to reader Godfree Roberts) Construction of the Kunming – Shanghai leg was completed last week.

In southwest China’s Yunnan province, construction of a high-speed railway connecting the capital city of Kunming with Shanghai has just been completed. The high-speed railway is the first for Yunnan. The route is about 380 kilometers and connects the remote southwest with the prosperous eastern China. Engineers say there were great challenges during construction, but they were overcome. Yunnan is situated in a mountainous area, but engineers managed to build nearly 130 bridges and 40 tunnels.

Test runs of the railway will be conducted in June, with plans open to the public by the end of the year. It will allow people who live in Chiang Mai, Thailand, to take a 55 minute flight to Kunming then board a 4 hour train to Shanghai, which will connect them to the rest of China's 20,000 km High Speed Rail network.

The Kunming-Singapore central line will cross Laos and Thailand before heading south towards Malaysia's capital Kuala Lumpur and then Singapore. The eastern line will run through Vietnam and Cambodia before linking up with the central line in Bangkok. The western line will cross more of southwestern China and much of Myanmar before joining up in Bangkok.

The cities of Kunming and the Thai capital, Bangkok, will serve as the main hubs for the network.

High and medium-speed rail services are expected to connect 10 major cities between Kunming in China and Singapore. China is negotiating with seven Southeast Asian countries.

Transport analyst Dr. Ruth Banomyong thinks the economic benefits of a modern railway network are now too tempting for many poorer Southeast Asian countries to pass up.

"High speed rail is very expensive and none of the countries - Laos, Myanmar, Vietnam, or Cambodia - can really afford one," Banomyong, who is a professor at Bangkok's Thammasat University, told DW.

He added that there is also a question mark over the cost of the proposed route through Thailand, a middle income country. Although the costs for the whole project haven't been revealed, the Thai section alone is estimated to be worth 20 billion euros ($23 billion.)
Construction has already finished on the Vietnam stretch of the rail link, while work got underway last December to connect landlocked Laos to Kunming.

China is also bidding to build high speed railway lines in India and has proposed a direct rail link to the Iranian capital, Tehran.

The rail route between Singapore and Kuala Lumpur already exists but the contract to upgrade to high-speed lines is expected to be taken by the end of the year. Local media reports suggest that Singapore prefers a Japanese or European bidder but Malaysia favors a Chinese firm.

Construction of sections connecting China with Vietnam, China with Myanmar and Laos with Vietnam are under way.

SOURCES - Deutsche Welle, Wikipedia,

Tesla claims $190/kwh cost for battery packs today

Tesla’s Vice-President of Investor Relations, Jeff Evanson, jumped in on the call between Langan and Bereisa to correct their analysis. Evanson stated that Tesla’s battery pack cost is already below $190/kWh – meaning at least 26% less than Bereisa’s current estimate – and that the base Model 3 will be offered with a battery pack option smaller than 60 kWh, like Bereisa assumed.

During the Model 3 unveiling last month, Tesla CEO Elon Musk said that the base Model 3, which is expected to start at $35,000 before incentives, will have a range of over 215 miles on a single charge. While Musk didn’t confirm the energy capacity of the pack, it will be impressive if Tesla can achieve such a range on a less than 60 kWh pack, like Evanson is now suggesting.

The $190 per kwh battery pack cost would indicate a cell cost of $128 or less using Bereisa's 48-percent increment.

Bereisa disagreed with that cost, saying that the raw materials cost for today's lithium-ion cell chemistries is $160 per kwh if you assume a conventional 40-percent supplier markup. Bereisa estimated Tesla's per-kwh cost for the entire Model 3 battery pack at $260 per kwh. Bereisa estimated $215 per kwh for GM

Evanson also disputed Bereisa's suggestion that the Model 3 would have a 60-kwh battery pack, saying that it would have a capacity below that estimate.

Bereisa shot back that 55 kwh or more would be required to get to the promised 200-mile range.

These various cost estimates cover only the materials and labor costs of the cells and packs, and do not include any overhead, capital investment, and the many other costs required to operate a car company.

The discussion reveals that battery and cell costs have not only fallen faster than expected just five years ago, but may be on a path to reach the magic $100 per kwh level at which electric cars are price-competitive with conventional models.

Bereisa is more pessimistic, estimating that even by 2025, the full pack will fall only to $135 to $155 per kwh.

By 2030 Electric Vehicles with a 200 mile range will be lower cost than the cheapest car sold in the US in 2015

Ramez Naam has an analysis of how cheap electric cars can get

Electric Vehicles, like virtually all other manufactured goods, are likely to have a learning curve, meaning that greater production will mean reduced price. Batteries, a large fraction of the cost of EVs, appear to have a learning rate of around 21%, meaning that every doubling of scale will reduce costs by 21%.

What about whole vehicles? The Ford Model T had a learning rate of around 16%. Let’s use that for the entire vehicle, including the battery. That gives us a conservative estimate of the cost improvement rate.

Last year, EVs grew at around 60% annually, to around 1 million total EVs ever sold. Sources in China tell me they expect several hundred thousand EVs to be sold there in 2016 alone. Growth could easily be 60% again in 2016. Even so, growth will eventually slow. Bloomberg New Energy Finance expects 30% long term growth. Let’s use that for now, to be conservative.

Those assumptions lead to a world where, by roughly 2030, EVs with a 200 mile range are cheaper than the cheapest car sold in the US in 2015.

A few days ago Telsa claims that the cost of their battery packs is down to $190 per kwh. This should go down 30-50% when the Gigafactory reaches full production levels

On Cost-Per-Mile, EVs Win Even More

Electric vehicles, today, have lower total costs per mile than equivalent gasoline-powered vehicles, due to lower energy costs of electricity and the lower maintenance costs. At 30% growth rate, EVs will have roughly half the up-front cost of gasoline-powered vehicles in roughly 10-12 years, around 2027 or 2028. At that point, the total cost per-mile-driven of EVs will also be roughly half the cost of gasoline powered vehicles.

In 2014, Nextbigfuture had discussed the possibility of a battery singularity. The Battery singularity would be the electric car singularity as Ramez is also discussing. Batteries (and electric engines) that replace gasoline (and combustion engines) but at lower lifetime costs have the potential to completely replace combustion engines. I believe the costs will be brought down and the factory construction and scaling of the supply chain will take until about 2025. We could get to 10 million electric cars per year by about 2020 and then to 100 million by 2025.

This would likely mean that Tesla with its large lead in electric cars would likely be selling as many cars as Toyota now and possibly 2 to 3 times as many. This would be 10 to 30 million cars. Tesla would be worth $300 billion to $2 trillion depending upon the price earnings multiple.

April 27, 2016

Magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters can have hundreds of times the thrust of ion propulsion for space application

There are a few technically feasible approaches to get about a megawatt of power in space using nuclear power or solar power. Russia has a project to develop about a megawatt nuclear reactor for space applications.

NASA Glenn Research Center, GRC, has several programs to advance near-term photovoltaic array development. One project is to design, build, and test two 20 kW-sized deployable solar arrays, bringing them to technology readiness level (TRL) 5, and through analysis show that they should be extensible to 300 kW-class systems (150 kw per wing). These solar arrays are approximately 1500 square meters in total area which is about an order-of-magnitude larger than the 160 square meters solar array blankets on the International Space Station (ISS).

Orbital ATK has a promising lightweight and compact solar array structure. The MegaFlex™ engineering development unit was tested at NASA GRC Plumbrook facility in 2015. Use of high-power solar arrays, at power levels ranging from ~500 KW to several megawatts is possible in the near to mid-term.

Deployable Space System, DSS, developed a roll-out array, ROSA, EDU that employs an innovative stored strain energy deployment to reduce the number of mechanisms and parts. The elastic structure maintains stiffness throughout deployment for partially deployed power generation. The rectangular design can be configured in many ways by either lengthening the booms, adjusting the length and width, or attaching several winglets onto a deployable backbone. Lengthening and/or shortening the booms provides power scaling without changing any of the subsystems or stowed configuration. See below for a fully deployed ROSA array.

* four 150 kilowatt wings would be 600 kilowatts in power. The new wings are easy to deploy and do not involve astronauts.
* eight 150 kilowatt wings would be 1.2 megawatts

A NASA presentation looked at space based power and storage requirements and options.

Power at the hundreds of kilowatts and megawatt levels would be great for magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters

In theory, magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters could produce extremely high specific impulses (Isp) with an exhaust velocity of up to and beyond 110,000 m/s (0.03% of light speed), triple the value of current xenon-based ion thrusters, and about 25 times better than liquid rockets. MPD technology also has the potential for thrust levels of up to 200 newtons (N) (45 lbF ), by far the highest for any form of electric propulsion, and nearly as high as many interplanetary chemical rockets.[citation needed] This would allow use of electric propulsion on missions which require quick delta-v maneuvers (such as capturing into orbit around another planet), but with many times greater fuel efficiency

CGI rendering of Princeton University's lithium-fed self-field MPD thruster (from Popular Mechanics magazine)

A magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster (MPDT) is a form of electrically powered spacecraft propulsion which uses the Lorentz force (the force on a charged particle by an electromagnetic field) to generate thrust. It is sometimes referred to as Lorentz Force Accelerator (LFA) or (mostly in Japan) MPD arcjet.

Generally, a gaseous material is ionized and fed into an acceleration chamber, where the magnetic and electrical fields are created using a power source. The particles are then propelled by the Lorentz force resulting from the interaction between the current flowing through the plasma and the magnetic field (which is either externally applied, or induced by the current) out through the exhaust chamber. Unlike chemical propulsion, there is no combustion of fuel. As with other electric propulsion variations, both specific impulse and thrust increase with power input, while thrust per watt drops.

There are two main types of MPD thrusters, applied-field and self-field. Applied-field thrusters have magnetic rings surrounding the exhaust chamber to produce the magnetic field, while self-field thrusters have a cathode extending through the middle of the chamber. Applied fields are necessary at lower power levels, where self-field configurations are too weak. Various propellants such as xenon, neon, argon, hydrogen, hydrazine, and lithium have been used, with lithium generally being the best performer.

According to Edgar Choueiri magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters have input power 100-500 kilowatts, exhaust velocity 15-60 kilometers per second, thrust 2.5-25 newtons and efficiency 40-60 percent.

One potential application of magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters is the main propulsion engine for heavy cargo and piloted space vehicles (example engine a^2 for Manned mission to Mars)

A plan, proposed by Bradley C. Edwards, is to beam power from the ground. This plan utilizes 5 200 kW free electron lasers at 0.84 micrometres with adaptive optics on the ground to beam power to the MPD-powered spacecraft, where it is converted to electricity by GaAs photovoltaic panels. The tuning of the laser wavelength of 0.840 micrometres (1.48 eV per photon) and the PV panel bandgap of 1.43 eV to each other produces an estimated conversion efficiency of 59% and a predicted power density of up to 540 kW/m2. This would be sufficient to power a MPD upper stage, perhaps to lift satellites from LEO to GEO

European space agency will use four larger ion thrusters

The European Space Agency has a flagship mission to Mercury powered by ion drives. BepiColombo will provide the best understanding of Mercury to date. It consists of two individual orbiters: the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) to map the planet, and the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO) to investigate its magnetosphere.

BepiColombo mission is based on two spacecraft:

  • a Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO); and
  • a Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO)

BepiColombo Mercury Transfer Module

Among several investigations, BepiColombo will make a complete map of Mercury at different wavelengths. It will chart the planet's mineralogy and elemental composition, determine whether the interior of the planet is molten or not, and investigate the extent and origin of Mercury’s magnetic field.

Only NASA's Mariner 10 and Messenger have visited Mercury so far. Mariner 10 provided the first-ever close-up images of the planet when it flew past three times in 1974-1975. En route to its final destination in orbit around Mercury in 18 March 2011, Messenger flew past the planet 3 times (14 January 2008, 6 October 2008, and 29 September 2009), providing new data and images. Once BepiColombo arrives in late 2024, it will help reveal information on the composition and history of Mercury. It should discover more about the formation and the history of the inner planets in general, including Earth.

The eerie blue exhaust trail of an ion thruster during a test firing. A quartet of these highly efficient T6 thrusters is being installed on ESA’s BepiColombo spacecraft to Mercury at ESA’s ESTEC Test Centre in Noordwijk, the Netherlands.

The Mercury Transfer Module will carry Europe’s Mercury Planetary Orbiter and Japan’s Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter together to Sun’s innermost planet over the course of 6.5 years.

T6 Ion Thruster Firing

“BepiColombo would not be possible in its current form without these T6 thrusters,” explains ESA propulsion engineer Neil Wallace.

The twin 'QinetiQ T6' ion thrusters operate at maximum combined throttle of 290 mN

The Mercury Planetary Orbiter will have a mass of 1,150 kilograms (2,540 lb) and will have its sides covered with solar cells providing 150 Watts at perihelion.

“Standard chemical thrusters face a fundamental upper limit on performance, set by the amount of energy in the chemical reaction that heats the ejected propellant producing the thrust.

“Ion thrusters can reach much higher exhaust speeds, typically an order of magnitude greater, because the propellant is first ionised and then accelerated using electrical energy generated by the solar panels. The higher velocity means less propellant is required.

“The down side is that the thrust levels are much lower and therefore the spacecraft acceleration is also low – meaning the thrusters have to be operating for long periods.

“However, in space there is nothing to slow us down, so over prolonged periods of thrusting the craft’s velocity is increased dramatically. Assuming the same mass of propellant, the T6 thrusters can accelerate BepiColombo to a speed 15 times greater than a conventional chemical thruster.”

The 22 cm-diameter T6 was designed for ESA by QinetiQ in the UK, whose expertise in electric propulsion stretches back to the 1960s.

It is an scaled-up version of the 10 cm T5 gridded ion thruster, which played a crucial role in ESA’s GOCE gravity-mapping mission by continuously compensating for vestigial atmospheric drag along its extremely-low orbit.

First drone command center installed on a Aircraft Carrier

The USS Carl Vinson (CVN 70) marked a historical milestone April 13 after installing the first unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) command center aboard an aircraft carrier.

Capt. Beau Duarte, program manager of Unmanned Carrier Aviation program office (PMA-268), inspected the site and recognized Carl Vinson Sailors instrumental in the security, logistics and installation of the UAV suite.

"This marks the start of a phased implementation of the MQ-XX system on an aircraft carrier," said Duarte. "The lessons learned and ground-breaking work done here will go on to inform and influence future installations on other aircraft carriers."

Previous Uclass drone fighter

The Navy is also sticking to its plans to field an unmanned MQ-XX Stingray platform with just tanking and surveillance capabilities to start with, while the Marine Corps is experimenting with the MQ-8C Fire Scout to help inform its path forward for amphibious assault ship-based unmanned aviation, officials said Wednesday.

The MQ-XX, formerly known as the Carrier Based Aerial Refueling System, will only include tanking and intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) as primary missions.

Elon Musk mentions that after the Tesla Model 3 will be even more affordable electric cars

Musk spoke late last week at the Future Transport Solutions conference in Oslo, Norway

Elon said that the $35,000 Tesla Model 3 is designed such that roughly half the people will be able to afford the car. A fourth generation Tesla and smaller cars will ultimately be in the position where everyone will be able to afford the cars. [12:40 minutes into the video interview]

Elon Musk notes that all fossil fuel cars are heavily subsidized. Oil and gas companies get direct subsidies and do not have to pay for their environmental damage.

29 minutes into the video he talks about improving batteries. Tesla is improving costs with the gigafactory with economies of scale. Batteries improve at about 5-8% per year. The Gigafactory can make batteries 30% more affordable.

Six columns of trucks drove as truck platoons across Europe signaling self driving trucks are near

A European self driving truck experiment is known as the European Truck Platooning Challenge.

The European Truck Platooning Challenge, organised by Rijkswaterstaat, featured DAF Trucks, Daimler Trucks, Iveco, MAN Truck and Bus, Scania and Volvo Group; driving in platoons across national borders. This was a global first. Truck platooning means that two or three trucks connected by wifi drive in a column, with the first truck determining the speed and route. This enables shorter gaps between following trucks, while freeing space for other vehicles. The wifi connection between the trucks ensures synchronized braking and can prevent sudden jolt/shock effects. This is good news for traffic flows and speeds up deliveries. Truck platooning can realize up to ten per cent fuel savings. As well as reducing CO2 emissions, this can also mean a significant savings for businesses.

Six columns of trucks arrived at Maasvlakte II after they had driven from a number of European cities to Rotterdam over the past several days.

Shipping a full truckload from L.A. to New York costs around $4,500 today, with labor representing 75 percent of that cost. But those labor savings aren’t the only gains to be had from the adoption of driverless trucks.

Where drivers are restricted by law from driving more than 11 hours per day without taking an 8-hour break, a driverless truck can drive nearly 24 hours per day. That means the technology would effectively double the output of the U.S. transportation network at 25 percent of the cost.

Trucking represents a considerable portion of the cost of all the goods we buy, so consumers everywhere will experience this change as lower prices and higher standards of living.

There are currently more than 1.6 million Americans working as truck drivers.

April 26, 2016

Carnival of Space 455

1. Universe Today - An Earth Like planet only 16 light years away ?

An artistic representation of Gliese 832 c against a stellar nebula background. A new paper says Gliese 832 might be home to another planet similar to this, but in the habitable zone. Credit: Planetary Habitability Laboratory at the University of Puerto Rico, Arecibo, NASA/Hubble, Stellarium.

2. Universe Today - Chinese Space baby research lands in Mongolia

The Chinese performed a 96-hour experiment to test the viability of mammal embryos in space. They placed 6,000 mouse embryos in a micro-wave sized chamber aboard a satellite, to see if they would develop into blastocysts. The development of embryos into blastocysts is a crucial step in reproduction. Once the blastocysts have developed, they attach themselves to the wall of the uterus. Cameras on the inside of the chamber allowed Chinese scientists on Earth to monitor the experiment.

3. Planetaria - New ‘KEM’ proposal would extend New Horizons post-Pluto mission to 2021

A proposal has been formally submitted to NASA to conduct a flyby of at least one more Kuiper Belt Object (KBO) and last until 2021.

This new mission has been dubbed “KEM,” or Kuiper Belt Extended Mission. There are many other small bodies in the Kuiper Belt besides Pluto, and mission scientists would love to be able to visit some of them as well. Pluto has already turned out to be more geologically active than anticipated, so what about some of these other ones? Granted, they are all smaller than Pluto, but being able to compare some of them directly with Pluto and its moons would be invaluable.

If approved by NASA, the KEM proposal will allow New Horizons to continue its study of the outer fringes of the Solar System until 2021, including a flyby of 2014 MU69. Image Credit: NASA/JHUAPL/SwRI

4. Universe Today - Dawn just wants to make all the other probes look bad

5. Spacer Pam Hoffman - The Evolution of Astronaut Food

An astronaut career has always been shrouded in a veil of mystery. Many people perceive astronauts as extraordinary and out-of-this-world kind of people. In a way they are, since they live and spend their lives between galaxies, exploring and unveiling the universe. Becoming an astronaut implies taking a long and winding road that few decide to follow and many never complete. If and when they finally reach the end of it, that’s where the...

Part of a much larger infographic at Everyday Spacer

6. Chandra Xray Space Telescope Blog - Comets in the "X"-Treme

New Exoskeleton is less than half the price and weight of competition

The Phoenix exoskeleton is the world's lightest and most advanced exoskeleton designed to help people with mobility disorders to be upright and mobile. In the clinic, at home, and in the workplace Phoenix has successfully enabled many individuals to stand up, walk about, and speak to peers eye-to-eye.

The Phoenix, costs $30,000 and weighs 12 kg. That’s why. The three competing exoskeletons on the market cost $80,000 or more, and two of them weigh more than 20 kg.

Major features:

  • A modular exoskeleton allowing the user to independently put on and remove each piece.
  • Weighs only 12.25kg (27 lbs), affording greater agility.
  • A speed of 1.1 miles/hour (0.5 m/sec) has been clocked by a Phoenix user. However, the maximum speed depends on the individual user.
  • On a single charge, Phoenix can walk for 4 hours continuously or 8 hours intermittently.
  • Phoenix is adjustable for different size users and can be easily configured to fit individual conditions.
  • An intuitive interface makes it easy for users to control standing up, sitting down and walking.
  • Phoenix can comfortably be worn while seated in a wheelchair.

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